The guidelines for determining image resolution for large format depend on 3 factors:
Viewing distance, the viewing conditions, and the type of image. (Important to note: Wallpaper has a lot less detail then Hi Res Photos and is not to be viewed in the same way).
We are often asked ‘what resolution do my images need to be?’. In the world of small format printing, the answer to this question is usually pretty easy: the rule of thumb is usually l00DPI at 100% Full Size. Higher than that and the file size increases exponentially without truly increasing quality, lower than that and you may see jaggedness in edges and areas of contrast.
But in the world of large format printing this question is far more difficult.
Similar to Colour Perception, for an explanation of viewing distance we need to focus on the human eye. The ability of our eyes to discern detail is known as visual acuity. The maximum acuity in the human visual system is related to the diameter of the light sensing cones and rod on the retina, which mathematically translates to an angle (30 seconds of arc, to be precise). As we view things from farther away, our ability to resolve detail diminishes.
Eyeball visual acuity
So how do we determine a standard for how far the viewer is standing from the image? The larger it is, the further you need to stand away in order to be able to view it in it’s entirety. Below is a quick guideline calculated the viewing distance and the maximum resolution that can be discerned under perfectly ideal conditions:
|Hi Res Photo – 5″ x 7″||Viewing Distance 500mm||Min DPI 300|
|Poster Size – 900mm x 1200mm||Viewing Distance 1.5m||Min DPI 114|
|Wallpaper – 3m x 2.4m||Viewing Distance 3m||Min DPI 83|
The next consideration is how the image is viewed. Is there ample illumination? Will it be moving? Will the viewer be moving? Is it possible that the viewer may be much closer than the estimated viewing distance.
For example, consider an interior wall graphic and a semi trailer may have the exact same dimensions, but very different viewing conditions. Interior wall graphics most likely will be well lit, and viewed quite close up. So in that instance, higher resolutions would be necessary. For the semi trailer wrap it would not be as critical, since it would be moving most of the time, under variable lighting conditions.
The last thing to consider is the image itself. A low contrast or soft focus sort of image can be quite acceptable at lower resolutions, whereas an image with high contrast edges will show the effects of lack of resolution, pixels will be much more predominantly.
Does the image have a high degree of detail that needs to show, such as hair or fabric? Fine details may require higher resolutions to render properly. When in doubt: ask our team. If you still have concerns about the output quality, ask for a 100% sample of the image to be printed for approval.